The Ishihara test is a color perception test for red-green color deficiencies, the first in a class of successful color vision tests called pseudo-isochromatic plates ("PIP"). It was named after its designer, Dr. Shinobu Ishihara, a professor at the University of Tokyo, who first published his tests in 1917. The test consists of a number of colored plates, called Ishihara plates, each of which contains a circle of dots appearing randomized in color and size. Within the pattern are dots which form a number or shape clearly visible to those with normal color vision, and invisible, or difficult to see, to those with a red-green color vision defect. Other plates are intentionally designed to reveal numbers only to those with a red/green color vision deficiency, and be invisible to those with normal red/green color vision. The full test consists of 38 plates, but the existence of a severe deficiency is usually apparent after only a few plates. There is also an Ishihara test consisting 10, 14 or 24 test plates.
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